Artificial Intelligence

How do chatbots work? An overview of the architecture of a chatbot

09th Aug `18, 10:46 AM in Artificial Intelligence

Humans are constantly fascinated with auto-operating AI-driven gadgets. The latest trend that is catching the eye of the…

Vishnu Elupula
Vishnu Elupula Contributor

Humans are constantly fascinated with auto-operating AI-driven gadgets. The latest trend that is catching the eye of the majority of the tech industry is chatbots. And with so much research and advancement in the field, the programming is winding up more human-like, on top of being automated. The blend of immediate response reaction and consistent connectivity makes them an engaging change to the web applications trend.

What is a Chatbot?

In general terms, a bot is nothing but a software that will perform automatic tasks. In other terms, a bot is a computer program that is designed to communicate with human users through the internet. This article will focus on the class of bots that live on chat platforms and websites, i.e. chatbots.

The most natural definition of a chatbot is – a developed a program that can have a discussion/conversation with a human. For example, any user could ask the bot an inquiry or a statement, and the bot will respond or perform an activity as appropriate.

A chatbot interacts on a format similar to instant messaging. By artificially replicating the patterns of human interactions in machine learning allows computers to learn by themselves without programming natural language processing.

While a bot is a computer’s ability to understand human speech or text short for chat robot. A chatbot is merely a computer program that fundamentally simulates human conversations. It allows a form of interaction between a human and a machine the communication, which happens via messages or voice command.

A chatbot is programmed to work independently from a human operator. It can answer questions formulated to it in natural language and respond like a real person. It provides responses based on a combination of predefined scripts and machine learning applications.

When it is asked a question, the chatbot will respond based on the knowledge database available to it at that point in time. If the conversation introduces a concept it is not programmed to understand, it will either deflect the conversation or potentially pass the communication to a human operator. Either way, it will also learn from that interaction as well as from future interactions. Thus, the chatbot will gradually grow in scope and gain relevance.

For example, if you’ve asked Amazon’s Alexa, Apple Siri, or Microsoft’s Cortana, “What’s the weather?”, it would respond according to the latest weather reports it has access to. The complexity of a chatbot is determined by the sophistication of its underlying software and the data it can access.

Every enterprise has expanded IT infrastructure. From different fields, on-premise to cloud, companies with different supply providers, run on many different, internal and characterized-built applications, as well as ERP, encompass applications. There are other core applications like CRM and customer portals, which are the backbone of ERP.

Currently, many e-commerce companies are looking at various ways to use chatbots to improve their customer experiences. Whether for shopping, booking tickets or simply for customer service. The next time you hear about a chatbot, especially in business and travel, remember to look beyond the fancy term. And ask about how it really adds value to your travel program.

How are human languages processed by chatbots?

A chatbot is like a normal application. There is an app layer, a database and APIs to call other external administrations. Users can easily access chatbots, it adds intricacy for the application to handle.

However, there is a common problem that must be tackled. It can’t comprehend the plan of the customer. At the moment, bots are trained according to the past information available to them. So, most organizations have a chatbot that maintains logs of discussions. Developers utilize these logs to analyze what clients are trying to ask. With a blend of machine learning tools and models, developers coordinate client inquiries and reply with the best appropriate answer. For example, if any customer is asking about payments and receipts, such as, “where is my product payment receipt?” and “I haven’t received a payment receipt?”, both sentences are taken to have the same meaning.

If there is no comprehensive data available, then different APIs can be utilized to train the chatbot.

How are Chatbots Trained?

Training a chatbot occurs at a considerably faster and larger scale than human education. While normal customer service representatives are given a manual instruction which they must be thorough with, a customer support chatbot is nourished with a large number of conversation logs, and from those logs, the chatbot can understand what type of question needs, what kind of answers.

Architecture & Work Methods of Chatbots.

The Chatbots work based on three classification methods:

1.Pattern Matches: Bots utilize pattern matches to group the text and it produces an appropriate response from the clients. “Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML), is a standard structured model of these Patterns.

A simple example of Pattern matching is;


Then the machine gives the following output:

Human: Who invented the email?

Robot: According to Google, Ray Tomlinson invented email.

The Chatbot knows the appropriate answer because her or his name is in the related pattern. Similarly, the chatbots react to anything relating it to the correlate patterns. But it can’t go past the related pattern. To take it to a progressive stage, algorithms can help.

For every sort of question, a remarkable pattern must be accessible in the database to give a reasonable response. With a number of pattern combinations, it makes a hierarchical structure. We utilize algorithms to lessen the classifiers and produce the more reasonable structure.

2. Natural Language Understanding (NLU)


This NLU has 3 specific concepts as follows:

Entities: This essentially represents an idea to your chatbot. For example, it may be a payment system in your E-commerce chatbot.

Context: When a natural language understanding algorithm examines a sentence, it doesn’t have the historical backdrop of the user’s text conversation. This implies that, if it gets a response to a question it has been recently asked, it won’t recall the inquiry. So, the phases during the conversation of chat are separately stored. It can either be banners like “Ordering Pizza”. Or could include other parameters like “Domino’s: Restaurant”. With context, you can easily relate expectations with the necessity of comprehending the last question.

Expectations: This is what a chatbot must fulfill when the customer says sends an inquiry. Which can be the same for different inquiries. For example, the goal triggered for, “I want to purchase a white pair of shoes”, and “Do you have white shoes? I want to purchase them” or “show me a white pair of shoes”, is the same: a list of shops selling white shoes. Hence, all user typing text show a single command which is the identifying tag; white shoes.

3. Natural Language Processing (NLP)


(NLP) Natural Language Processing Chatbots finds a way to convert the user’s speech or text into structured data. Which is then utilized to choose a relevant answer. Natural Language Processing includes the following steps;

  1. Tokenization: The NLP separates a series of words into tokens or pieces that are linguistically representative, with a different value in the application.
  2. Sentiment Analysis: It will study and learn the user’s experience, and transfer the inquiry to a human when necessary
  3. Normalization: This program model processes the text to find out the typographical errors and common spelling mistakes that might alter the intended meaning of the user’s request.
  4. Named Entity Recognition: The program model of chatbot looks for different categories of words, similar to the name of the particular product, the user’s address or name, whichever information is required.
  5. Dependency Parsing: The Chatbot searches for the subjects, verbs, objects, common phrases and nouns in the user’s text to discover related phrases that what users want to convey.

In conclusion

For many applications, the chatbot is connected to the database. The database is utilized to sustain the chatbot and provide appropriate responses to every user. NLP can translate human language into data information with a blend of text and patterns that can be useful to discover applicable responses.

There are NLP applications, programming interfaces, and services that are utilized to develop chatbots. And make it possible for all sort of businesses – small, medium or large-scale industries. The primary point here is that smart bots can help increase the customer base by enhancing the customer support services, thereby helping to increase sales.