Normally it can take 15 to 20 years to design and create a high performance material, such as a new polymer, carbon fiber technology, or battery technology. That’s because materials designed today are basically brute force trial and error and process of elimination.
For example, suppose a firm wants to design new materials to be used in the body of a fuel-efficient vehicle. The materials must have certain properties concerning strength, weight, ability to handle stress along different directions, and so on. The materials’ properties are governed by the underlying structure of the material itself, called the microstructure.